EESPA Glossary

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  • a

  • Access Point
    in the Global Interoperability Framework, and more generally, is used to describe a service provider acting as the connection point for its customers to a network and potentially offering a(...) - Read more

  • Account Information Service Provider (AISP)
    An authorised entity that provides aggregation services related to payment accounts such as bank accounts. PSD2 allows AISPs authorised access to bank account data through an API. - Read more

  • Account Servicing Payment Service Provider (ASPSP)
    Payment Service Provider (PSP) (bank or card issuer) that provides authorised access to bank account information. For PSD2 they are allowing API access to bank account data for AISPs and PISPs. - Read more

  • Accounts Payable
    are monies owed by a customer to its suppliers arising in the normal course of business from the delivery of goods and services. They are usually represented by outstanding invoices. - Read more

  • Accounts Receivable
    are monies owed to a supplier by its customers arising in the normal course of business from the delivery of goods and services. They are usually represented by outstanding invoices. - Read more

  • Acknowledgement of Receipt
    A documented verification that goods have been received or services have been rendered. Typically, the acknowledgement is indicated by the recipient's signature on a receipt or form. - Read more

  • Adherence Agreement
    in the EESPA Multilateral Framework Agreement (MIFA) is an agreement entered into with another framework participant to agree the business profile of documents to be exchanged, and any specific(...) - Read more

  • Advanced Electronic Signature
    is an electronic signature that has met the requirements set forth in EU Regulation No 910/2014 (e-IDAS-regulation) on electronic identification and trust services for electronic transactions in(...) - Read more

  • Aggregator
    a service model whereby invoices from/to multiple senders are received at/sent from a single point of contact, acting as a service provider; sometimes referred to as a consolidator. - Read more

  • Allowance or Charge Information
    A group of information elements setting out details of allowances, or charges and taxes other than VAT, applicable to an individual invoice line item in an invoice. - Read more

  • Application Programming Interface (API)
    A set of programming that are available for software developers when they integrate with a particular service or application. - Read more

  • Archiving
    data archiving is the process of moving completed transactional data to a separate storage device or location for long-term retention. Archived data consists of data that is still important to(...) - Read more

  • AS2
    stands for Applicability Statement 2 and is a commonly used specification about how to transport data securely and reliably over the Internet. Security is achieved by using digital certificates(...) - Read more

  • AS4
    is an open standard for the secure and payload-agnostic exchange of business-to-business documents using web services. Secure document exchange is governed by aspects of web services security,(...) - Read more

  • AS4 Receipt
    the synchronous response on an AS4 request which corner 3 ( receiver’s service provider) returns to corner 2 ( sender’s service provider) in a four-corner model network to acknowledge receipt of(...) - Read more

  • Attachment
    refers to a document or dataset provided or archived in addition to an invoice containing supporting information such as expense details. It may also refer to the practice of rendering a PDF(...) - Read more

  • Audit
    is a systematic and independent examination by an auditor, whether external or internal, or a regulator of the books, accounts, and documents of an organization to ascertain how far the(...) - Read more

  • Audit Trail
    is a chronological record that provides documentary evidence of the sequence of activities that have affected at any time a specific operation, procedure, transaction or event. The auditing of(...) - Read more

  • Audit Trail or Log
    is a chronological record that provides documentary evidence of the sequence of activities that have affected at any time a specific operation, procedure, transaction or event. The auditing of(...) - Read more

  • Authenticity and Integrity
    ‘Authenticity of the origin’ means the assurance of the identity of the supplier or the issuer of the invoice and ‘Integrity of content’ means that the required invoice content has not been(...) - Read more

  • Automated Clearing House (ACH)
    An electronic clearing system in which payment orders are exchanged amongst participants and handled by a data-processing centre. - Read more

  • b

  • B2b
    are business dealings between a large business and small businesses (SMEs). - Read more

  • B2C
    is business for the provision of goods, services and information conducted directly between a company and consumers who are its end-users. - Read more

  • B2G
    is business-to-government (a variation of the term B2B), and refers to the exchange of goods, services or information between a business supplier and a public procuring entity. - Read more

  • Business controls
    are internal controls to oversee the correctness and veracity of all financial, transactions and operational elements of an organization. In the context of electronic invoicing it often refers(...) - Read more

  • Business Payments Coalition (BPC)
    is a volunteer group of organisations and individuals facilitated by the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis working together to promote greater adoption of electronic business-to-business(...) - Read more

  • Business process
    is a collection of structured and related activities or tasks that produce specific products or services, or deliver a defined goal for customers or the internal components of an organization. - Read more

  • Buyer or Receiver
    is a buyer of goods and services from a supplier or seller. An invoice issued by the seller is issued to the buyer, who is therefore the receiver of the goods and services, and the receiver of(...) - Read more

  • c

  • CEF e-Delivery
    is an EU building block that provides technical specifications and standards, installable software and ancillary services to allow projects to create a network of nodes for secure digital data(...) - Read more

  • CEN
    is the European Committee for Standardization, an association that brings together the National Standardization Bodies of 33 European countries. CEN is one of three European Standardization(...) - Read more

  • CEN BII
    CEN BII standardises e-Procurement processes, documents and content, supporting EU-wide interoperability, and covering the full procurement cycle, from notification in the pre-award phase, to(...) - Read more

  • CEN TC/434
    was launched in September 2014 as a project and then a technical committee operating within CEN governance, with responsibility for developing standards in support of European e-invoicing based(...) - Read more

  • CEN TC/440
    was launched in 2016 operating as a technical committee within CEN governance and responsible for developing standards in support of electronic public procurement including both pre-award and(...) - Read more

  • Certification (Certificate) Authority
    a certificate authority or certification authority (CA) or Certificate Service Provider is an entity that issues digital certificates. A digital certificate certifies the ownership of a public(...) - Read more

  • Chorus
    is a Portal for the submission of e-invoices to the French State and public sector organizations. - Read more

  • Clearance Model
    There are currently two types of regime for electronic invoicing compliance reporting. The 'post audit' approach translates requirements from paper-based invoicing to electronic flows, allowing(...) - Read more

  • Cloud computing
    the practice of using a network of remote servers hosted on the Internet to store, manage, and process data and provide services of all kinds, rather than using software installed on a local(...) - Read more

  • Code list
    A code list is a predefined list from which some statistical coded concepts take their values. Each code list has the following properties: a) identifier (it provides a unique identification(...) - Read more

  • Commercial Invoice
    is one of the main types of invoice issued by commercial enterprises and will relate to transactions for the provision of goods and services between buyers and sellers and where shipment has(...) - Read more

  • Compliance
    The term ‘compliance’ is used in many ways in business practice, for example ‘compliance’ may refer to complying with law, or complying with established business rules or contractual conditions.(...) - Read more

  • Compliance Definitions
    requirements for legally compliant e-Invoices issued by EESPA to its Members and all interested parties. See listing below and download the definitions here: - Read more

  • Compliance Definition 1: Applicable VAT law
    are VAT requirements for correctly selecting the jurisdiction(s) which will govern the main aspects of e-invoice compliance. - Read more

  • Compliance Definition 2: VAT rate selection
    are requirements for noting and applying the correct VAT, withholding, luxury or other applicable indirect tax rate for a supply in an invoice, where necessary accompanied by the correct(...) - Read more

  • Compliance Definition 3: VAT minimum invoice content
    are VAT requirements for the information that must be contained within an invoice. (Article 226 of the VAT Directive [2006. 112. EC]). - Read more

  • Compliance Definition 4: Non-VAT content requirements
    are legal requirements arising from commercial or procurement law or other legal instruments regulating the content of certain commercial documents such as invoices; this specifically includes(...) - Read more

  • Compliance Definition 5: Computational integrity
    are both the requirement for accuracy in the process of mathematical calculation, and any relevant national or local rules applied to processes such as rounding rules, as well as correct(...) - Read more

  • Compliance Definition 6: E-invoicing notification or prior approval
    are VAT requirements concerning the notification of or request for prior approval for using invoices in electronic format to a competent tax administration. - Read more

  • Compliance Definition 7: Invoice file format
    are requirements for the technical file format (syntax) of the fiscally valid invoice that is exchanged between the trading partners, or the invoice data to be communicated to the tax(...) - Read more

  • Compliance Definition 8: Paper invoice dematerialisation
    are VAT requirements for the correct transformation of a paper invoice into an electronic invoice. - Read more

  • Compliance Definition 9: Electronic invoice exchange
    are requirements for the correct technical and IT security exchange or receipt of e-invoices between trading partners or their service providers, including putting in place the necessary(...) - Read more

  • Compliance Definition 10: Integrity and authenticity
    are VAT requirements for ensuring and being able to demonstrate integrity of the invoice data and authenticity of the origin of an electronic invoice. - Read more

  • Compliance Definition 11: Legibility
    are VAT requirements for an electronic invoice to be capable of being rendered human-readable during its legal lifetime in case of tax administration audit. - Read more

  • Compliance Definition 12: Archiving
    are VAT requirements for the storage of electronic invoices and any associated evidence, including requirements for the format of the stored invoice, the components to be stored, duration of(...) - Read more

  • Compliance Definition 13: Storage
    are VAT requirements to notify a competent tax administration of e-invoices being physically stored in another country from the country whose VAT law applies to the storage of that invoice and(...) - Read more

  • Compliance Definition 14: Buyer consent requirements
    are VAT requirements for obtaining the buyer’s (express or implied) agreement to receive invoices in electronic format, where required. - Read more

  • Compliance Definition 15: Mandatory interchange agreement
    are VAT requirements for the execution and maintenance of an electronic data interchange agreement between the supplier and the buyer, in accordance with relevant regulatory provisions. It is(...) - Read more

  • Compliance Definition 16: Third party issuance
    are VAT requirements for the supplier’s authorization to, and where applicable the acceptance thereof by, a third party such as its service provider to issue fiscally valid electronic invoices(...) - Read more

  • Compliance Definition 17: Third party receipt and validation agreement
    are VAT requirements for the buyer’s authorization to, and where applicable the acceptance thereof by, a third party such as its service provider to receive and ensure indirect tax compliance(...) - Read more

  • Compliance Definition 18: Invoice clearance
    are VAT requirements for trading partners at various stages of an invoicing transaction to communicate the invoice, in whole or as a subset or a reference to the invoice, to a service hosted by(...) - Read more

  • Compliance Definition 19: Real-time reporting
    are VAT requirements for the supplier, the buyer or both trading partners to communicate the invoice, in whole or as a subset or a reference to the invoice, to a tax administration-designated(...) - Read more

  • Compliance Definition 20: Real-time authentication
    are VAT requirements for the use of clearance or real-time reporting service access credentials and/or the application or validation of an electronic or digital signature to an electronic(...) - Read more

  • Compliance Definition 21: On-request e-audit
    are VAT requirements for a taxable person to be able to extract and present electronic invoices in a predefined format upon the explicit request of a competent tax administration. - Read more

  • Compliance Definition 22: On-request reporting
    are VAT requirements for the reporting or declaration of VAT on an aggregated and/or detailed level on ad hoc basis upon the explicit request of a competent tax administration. - Read more

  • Compliance Definition 23: Periodic reporting
    are VAT requirements for the reporting or declaration of VAT on an aggregated and/or detailed level on a monthly or other periodic basis. - Read more

  • Compliance Definition 24: Data privacy
    e.g. the GDPR requirements to ensure correct and secure processing of personal and sensitive data by (i) the contracted service provider and (ii) the receiving party (either the buyer or the(...) - Read more

  • Connecting Europe Facility
    the Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) supports initiatives in the sectors of transport, telecommunications and energy. The telecommunications part of CEF is dedicated to Digital Service(...) - Read more

  • ConnectONCE
    is the Open Network for Commerce Exchange (USA), a collaborative forum for B2B e-Commerce. - Read more

  • Contract Reference
    is a reference in an invoice to a pre-existing contract between buyer and seller to identify the context for the supply of goods and services covered by an invoice. - Read more

  • Contracting authority or entity
    is an organization forming part of the public sector carrying out public procurement activities. - Read more

  • Core elements of an electronic invoice
    in the semantic model for the European Norm 16931, these are the component terms and meanings of a core invoice issued in compliance with the European Norm. - Read more

  • Core Invoice Usage Specification (CIUS)
    is a specification that provides a seller with detailed guidance, explanations and examples, as well as business rules related to the actual implementation and use (or restriction of use) of(...) - Read more

  • Credit Institution or Bank
    Any institution that is either (i) a business that receives deposits or other repayable funds from the public and grants credit for its own account, or (ii) a business or any other legal person,(...) - Read more

  • Credit Note
    a credit note is a commercial document issued by a seller to a buyer following the creation of the invoice in circumstances where there is a mistake or fault in goods and service delivered by(...) - Read more

  • Credit Transfer
    is a means of payment whereby a single or a bulk payment is made electronically from one bank or payment account to another bank or payment account at the initiation of the payer. - Read more

  • CSV
    a file format based on comma-separated values. - Read more

  • CTC (Continuous Transaction Controls)
    A form of transaction-based reporting or clearance either based on the actual invoice or on a subset of the invoice. Governments have increasingly implemented cloud-managed services to improve(...) - Read more

  • Customer or client
    the buyer or receiver of goods and services from a seller for whom such a party is their customer or client. - Read more

  • cXML
    stands for commerce extensible mark-up language and is a protocol, created by Ariba in 1999, intended for communication of business documents between procurement applications, e-commerce hubs(...) - Read more

  • d

  • D-U-N-S
    is the Data Universal Numbering System or D-U-N-S® Number, Dun and Bradstreet’s (D&B) copyrighted, proprietary means of identifying business entities on a location-specific basis. Assigned and(...) - Read more

  • Data
    as defined in the Global Interoperability Framework (GIF), is the business content that needs to be conveyed between parties. This data could be virtually anything in terms of the information(...) - Read more

  • Data Protection
    is the process of protecting personal data. It involves the collection and dissemination of data in automated systems, the public expectations of data privacy, and the political and legal(...) - Read more

  • Debit Note
    is a commercial document issued by a buyer to a seller as a means of formally requesting a credit note. A seller might also issue a debit note instead of an invoice to adjust upwards the amount(...) - Read more

  • Delivery
    as defined in the Global Interoperability Framework (GIF) is the fundamental means of electronic transport or network based on protocols and technical artefacts, which permits interoperability(...) - Read more

  • Delivery Note
    is a document accompanying a shipment of goods that lists the description and quantity of the goods delivered. A copy of the delivery note, signed by the buyer or consignee, may be returned to(...) - Read more

  • Digital Certificate
    is an electronic document used to ’bind’ the identity of a natural or legal person to a public key. The certificate includes information about the key, information about its owner's identity,(...) - Read more

  • Digital Signature
    A digital signature guarantees the authenticity of an electronic document or message in digital communication and uses encryption techniques to provide proof of integrity of the signed data. - Read more

  • Direct Debit
    a means of payment whereby a third party is authorized to collect single or regular payments directly from a bank or payment account owned by its customer or debtor under the terms of a mandate(...) - Read more

  • Directive 2006/112/EC
    is a recast of the 6th EU VAT Directive of 17 May 1977 on the harmonization of the laws of the Member States relating to turnover taxes. It provides for a common system of value added tax, and a(...) - Read more

  • Directive 2010/45/EC
    is an EU VAT (value-added tax) Directive amending Directive 2006/112/EC, in which, inter alia, rules for establishing the authenticity, integrity and archiving of electronic invoices are set out. - Read more

  • Directive 2014/55/EU
    is an EU Directive establishing that all contracting entities in the public sector across the EU must be able to receive and process electronic invoices based on a new European Norm (Standard). - Read more

  • Directives
    in general is a type of EU legislative instrument, but, in the Global Interoperability Framework (GIF), the term is used colloquially to denote the legislative, regulatory and governance(...) - Read more

  • Directives 2014/ 23-24-25/EU
    are EU Directives establishing the framework for electronic public procurement in the EU. - Read more

  • Discovery
    as defined in the Global Interoperability Framework (GIF) describes the basis on which information about a trading party is accessible to another trading party usually facilitated by their(...) - Read more

  • Dispatch (or Despatch) advice
    : is a document sent by a supplier to a buyer that states the description, type, and quantity of goods that have been sent to them: The dispatch advice enables the seller or shipper to provide(...) - Read more

  • DPO
    is Days Payable Outstanding, an efficiency ratio that measures the average number of days a company takes to pay its suppliers. The calculation is carried out by dividing the accounts payable as(...) - Read more

  • DSO
    is Days Sales Outstanding, an efficiency ratio that measures the average number of days a company takes to collect outstanding invoices from its customers. The calculation is carried out by(...) - Read more

  • Dynamic discounting
    : is a service that gives buyers more flexibility to choose how and when to pay their suppliers in exchange for a lower price or discount for the goods and services purchased. The ‘dynamic’(...) - Read more

  • Dynamic Discovery
    enables a sending access point at corner 2 in a four corner model to dynamically discover the IP address and receiving capabilities of the receiver at corner 4. The sender consults a Service(...) - Read more

  • Dynamic Sender
    are capabilities based on a Trust Model using a PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) and include the security controls to be implemented between corners 2 and 3 in a four-corner model. A dedicated(...) - Read more

  • e

  • E-billing
    is an expression used in the e-invoicing environment to refer to B2C billing such as for utilities and digital services. Some also use it simply as a synonym for e-invoicing, and others to(...) - Read more

  • E-Business
    is the conduct of business of all kinds over the Internet and is often used as a synonym for e-Commerce. Some prefer to confine the term e-Business to B2B/B2G transactions. - Read more

  • E-Catalogue
    is an online presentation for displaying information about a product line or service offering. It can consist of pictures with captions, features, tables, audio explanations, videos and(...) - Read more

  • E-Commerce
    is the buying and selling of goods and services, or the transmitting of funds or data, over an electronic network, primarily the Internet. These business transactions occur either as(...) - Read more

  • e-IDAS
    stands for EU Regulation 910/2014 on electronic identification and trust services for electronic transactions in the European internal market. It repeals Directive 1999/93/EC. In addition to the(...) - Read more

  • E-Procurement
    are activities carried out by a buying or contracting entity for the purchase of supplies, work, and services based on automated electronic processes through the Internet or other information(...) - Read more

  • e-SENS
    is the Electronic Simple European Networked Services, an EU project or Large Scale Pilot launched within the ICT Policy Support Programme, under the Competitiveness and Innovation Framework(...) - Read more

  • EANCOM
    is a leading international standard for the computerized interchange of data and is based on UN/EDIFACT. It is designed for use within supply chains and in its structures the GS1 business(...) - Read more

  • Early (or Prompt) Payment Discounts
    a commercial arrangement between buyer and seller, where the early payment of invoices are funded from a buyer’s own stock of liquidity in return for a fixed or dynamic discount. - Read more

  • EBA Clearing
    A bank-owned provider of pan-European payment infrastructure solutions, established in June 1998 by 52 major European and international banks. Currently, EBA CLEARING counts 53 shareholder banks(...) - Read more

  • ebXML
    is a project to use the Extensible Mark-up Language (XML) to standardize the secure exchange of business data. The United Nations body for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business Information(...) - Read more

  • EDI
    is the transfer of data from one computer system to another by using standardized messages, without the need for human intervention. Originally the essence of EDI was based on point-to-point(...) - Read more

  • EDIFACT
    stands for Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport. It is accepted as the international EDI standard that has been adopted by organisations wishing to trade in a(...) - Read more

  • EESPA
    is the European E-invoicing Service Providers Association. - Read more

  • EIN
    is the EESPA Interoperability Network - Read more

  • EIPP/EBPP
    stands for Electronic Invoice Presentment and Payment, or Electronic Bill Presentment and Payment. They are solutions that combine e-invoicing services and payment services. They are facilitated(...) - Read more

  • Electronic Address Identifier
    Unique digital address used by a trading party for the routing of digital documents and messages. - Read more

  • Electronic invoice (or E-invoice)
    according to EU regulations, is an invoice, which has been issued, transmitted and received in a structured electronic format, allowing for automated electronic processing. Some market(...) - Read more

  • Electronic invoicing (or E-invoicing)
    is used as an umbrella term to describe any method by which an invoice is electronically created and presented to a customer for payment to be made following an automated process. E-invoicing(...) - Read more

  • Electronic Money Institution (EMI)
    A term used in EU legislation to designate credit institutions which are governed by a simplified regulatory regime because their activity is limited to the issuance of electronic money and the(...) - Read more

  • Electronic Registered Delivery Service (ERDS)
    Electronic registered delivery service means a service that makes it possible to transmit data between third parties by electronic means and provides evidence relating to the handling of the(...) - Read more

  • Electronic Routing Address
    The electronic routing address associated with an Electronic Address Identifier that defines the service provider/access point or platform that supports the routing and processing of digital(...) - Read more

  • Electronic signature
    is a general expression for any type of electronically generated signature on a message or document transmitted electronically. They range from facsimile signatures to the more secure Digital(...) - Read more

  • EN-16931
    is a European standard for a core invoice and is published in a number of parts:
    • Semantic data model of the core elements of an electronic invoice (the European Norm).
    • List of syntaxes that(...)
    - Read more

  • EN-16931-EXT-EESPA
    an extension for use within the EESPA Interoperability Network (EIN), that is conformant with the Extension methodology specified in the EN-16931 documentation. - Read more

  • Entity Identifier
    Unique digital identifier of a trading party or business entity. This can be a Legal Entity Identifier or another convenient and recognisable identifier - Read more

  • ERP system
    is business process management software that allows an organization to use a system of integrated applications to manage the business and automate many back office functions such as procurement,(...) - Read more

  • European Interoperability Framework 2.0
    is a set of recommendations which specifies how administrations, businesses and citizens communicate with each other within the EU and across Member State borders. It specifies layers of(...) - Read more

  • European Model EDI Agreement
    specifies the legal terms and conditions under which the parties conducting transactions by the use of electronic data interchange (EDI) operate. It was issued as a Commission Recommendation(...) - Read more

  • European Multi-Stakeholder Forum on e-Invoicing
    brings together delegates from national e-invoicing forums and other key stakeholders. Its objective is to help pave the way for a broad-scale adoption of e-invoicing at both national and(...) - Read more

  • European Norm
    Semantic data model of the core elements of an electronic invoice. - Read more

  • Extension
    EN-16931 envisages requirements for trading parties to extend the core invoice model and the related business rules and code lists, in order to support business use-cases that are specific to(...) - Read more

  • f

  • Factoring
    is a form of receivables finance or purchase, in which sellers of goods and services sell their receivables (represented by outstanding invoices) at a discount to a finance provider (commonly(...) - Read more

  • Financial Supply Chain
    is the chain of financial processes, risk and liquidity management decisions, events and activities that provide financial support to the physical supply chain. - Read more

  • FinTech
    is the use of digital innovation and technology-enabled business model innovations in the financial sector (by existing and new players). It aims to increase customer benefits in terms of(...) - Read more

  • Format conversion or transformation
    in e-invoicing is the process by which a structured e-invoice is converted from one technical representation or syntax to another, while not altering its business or semantic content. It may(...) - Read more

  • Format or File Format
    is a standard way that information is technically represented or encoded in a computer file. File formats may be either proprietary or free and may be either unpublished or open. In e-invoicing(...) - Read more

  • Four Corner Model
    is a model for interoperability in which the seller and buyer are not using the same service provider. The service providers or a party providing a ‘self-service’, in turn inter-operate with(...) - Read more

  • FTP
    refers to the File Transfer Protocol, a standard network protocol used to transfer computer files from one host to another host over the Internet. FTP is built on a client-server architecture(...) - Read more

  • g

  • GLN
    a Global Location Number (GLN) is used by companies to identify their locations with the flexibility to identify any type or level of location within specifications provided by GS1. - Read more

  • Global Interoperability Framework (GIF)
    is a set of recommended practices, policies, standards and guidelines that enables the exchange of e-Invoices, and other supply chain documents and messages independently of adjacent payment,(...) - Read more

  • Goods for resale
    are goods acquired by enterprises, such as wholesalers and retailers, for the purpose of reselling them without further processing (that is, not transformed other than by presenting them in ways(...) - Read more

  • Goods not for resale
    are purchased by enterprises for consumption by internal business units or functions rather than the external customer. Such indirect procurement categories include: marketing related services,(...) - Read more

  • GS1 (Global Standards One)
    is a not-for-profit standards organization that manages the assignment of various numbering schemes for global commerce. Active in the world of supply chains in retail, healthcare, transport and(...) - Read more

  • h

  • Header
    refers to supplemental data placed at the beginning of a block of data being stored or transmitted. In data transmission, the data following the header (or ‘envelope’) is often called the(...) - Read more

  • HTML
    is Hyper Text Mark-up Language (HTML) is the standard mark-up language for creating web pages and web applications. With Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), and JavaScript, it forms a triad of(...) - Read more

  • Hybrid Invoice
    is method of embedding structured electronic invoice inside a PDF, using the PDF A/3 format. It is often called a 'hybrid' invoice, as it includes both a structured and a human readable(...) - Read more

  • i

  • IBAN
    is an internationally agreed system of identifying bank accounts across national borders to facilitate the communication and processing of cross border transactions with a reduced risk(...) - Read more

  • ICT
    stands for Information and Communications Technology. - Read more

  • Identifier
    is the unique name or code (e.g. alphanumeric) for variables, attributes, methods, classes, packages and interfaces. Unlike literals they are not the things themselves, just ways of referring to(...) - Read more

  • Information element
    in the European Norm for the semantic model of the core elements of an e-invoice, it is semantic concept (e.g. a business term or component of an invoice) that can be defined independently of(...) - Read more

  • Instant Payments
    Instant payments are electronic retail payment solutions available 24/7/365 and resulting in the immediate or close-to-immediate interbank clearing of the transaction and crediting of the(...) - Read more

  • Internet Protocol
    The Internet Protocol (IP) (or TCP/IP- Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the method or protocol by which data is sent from one computer to another on the Internet. - Read more

  • Interoperability
    !-- wp:paragraph --

    is defined as the ability of a seller or a buyer together acting as trading parties to exchange compliant e-invoices and other supply chain electronic messages containing(...)

    - Read more

  • Invoice
    is a detailed summary of goods and services provided or rendered by a seller to a buyer. It is a demand for payment on specified terms, and often establishes a tax liability in respect of VAT or(...) - Read more

  • Invoice Finance
    a sub-set of Supply Chain Finance, including a variety of techniques related to financing of invoices such as Receivables/Invoice Discounting, Factoring, Payables Finance and Loans or Advances(...) - Read more

  • Invoice issue date
    the date when an invoice was issued. It may or may not be the value-added tax point date. - Read more

  • Invoice number
    is the sequential number required in Article 226(2) of the Directive 2006/112/EC, to uniquely identify an invoice within the business context, time-frame, operating systems and records of the(...) - Read more

  • Invoice or receivables discounting
    is a form of receivables purchase, flexibly applied, in which sellers of goods and services sell individual or multiple receivables (represented by outstanding invoices) to a finance provider at(...) - Read more

  • Invoice Response (IR)
    a message which corner 4 (receiver or buyer) issues to corner 1 (sender or seller) in a four-corner model through corners 3 (receiver’s service provider) and corner 2 (sender’s service provider)(...) - Read more

  • Invoice response or status message
    is a message sent by a buyer or a service provider on its behalf to the seller indicating that an invoice has been accepted or rejected, or providing other status information. - Read more

  • ISO
    is the International Organization for Standardization, an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. ISO is well known for the(...) - Read more

  • l

  • Line item or data
    is usually the bulk of the body section of an invoice which is made up by line items. Line items name or describe the individual or groups (items) of goods sold or services rendered, the cost(...) - Read more

  • Loans or Advances against receivables
    financing made available to a party involved in a supply chain on the expectation of repayment from funds generated from current or future trade receivables and is usually made against the(...) - Read more

  • m

  • Master data
    represents the business objects which are agreed on and shared across the enterprise. It can cover static reference data, transactional, unstructured, analytical, hierarchical, and ‘meta’ data.(...) - Read more

  • Message Level Response (MLR)
    a message which corner 3 (receiver’s service provider) issues to corner 2 (sender’s service provider) in a four-corner model to confirm the validity of the received payload message containing(...) - Read more

  • Metadata
    is ‘data [information] that provides information about other data’. Three distinct types of metadata exist: structural metadata, descriptive metadata, and administrative metadata. OpenPEPPOL(...) - Read more

  • MIA
    the EESPA Model Interoperability Agreement which provides a legal and operational template for the documentation of bilateral interoperability agreements between service providers. - Read more

  • MIFA
    the EESPA Multilateral Interoperability Framework Agreement which specifies common standards and practices for interoperability between EESPA Members. - Read more

  • n

  • Negative Invoice
    is a type of credit note also referred to as a "negative balance invoice." It may be issued as a normal commercial invoice containing both current sales items and a credit for items being reversed. - Read more

  • o

  • OASIS
    is the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) and is a global non-profit consortium that works on the development, convergence, and adoption of standards(...) - Read more

  • OFTP2 (ODETTE)
    OFTP2 from ODETTE is a global standard for securely exchanging file data over the Internet. ODETTE International is the European standards organization for the automotive industry. - Read more

  • Open Banking
    Financial term covering the use of open-source technologies to enable third-party developers to build financial applications and related services that change the way people and businesses(...) - Read more

  • OpenPEPPOL Association
    is a membership association responsible for the governance and maintenance of the PEPPOL specifications. - Read more

  • Order-to-Cash
    is the business process for receiving and processing customer sales. It follows the sales opportunity, order, delivery, invoice and payment, and covers both business-to-business (B2B) and(...) - Read more

  • p

  • Payables Finance
    is provided through a buyer-led program within which sellers in the buyer’s supply chain may access finance by means of receivables purchase. The technique provides a seller of goods or services(...) - Read more

  • Payee and Payer
    the payee is the receiver of funds due under an invoice and is usually the seller but may be a third party such as a finance provider that has purchased the receivable (factoring), or a related(...) - Read more

  • Payment Initiation Service Provider (PISP)
    A regulated entity that allows customers to initiate payments without the customer needing to directly access their bank account or use a debit or credit card. PSD2 allows PISPs authorised(...) - Read more

  • Payment Institution
    The concept created by the enactment of the first Payment Services Directive. A payment institution can offer customers a range of payment-related services that are defined in the directive.(...) - Read more

  • Payment Integration Services
    A broad category, covering a wide range of opportunities to provide the closer integration of e-invoicing with payment flows, payment reconciliation, and transaction-based reporting and(...) - Read more

  • Payment instruction or order
    is the set of instructions or an order addressed by a payer to a bank or payment service provider containing a request for a payment and related details. It will include the remittance(...) - Read more

  • Payment instruction or order
    is the set of instructions or an order addressed by a payer to a bank or payment service provider containing a request for a payment and related details. It will include the remittance(...) - Read more

  • Payment Services Directive 2 (PSD2)
    is an EU Directive (2015/2366/EU) which builds on the legislative framework established by PSD 1. It acknowledges the rise of payment-related ‘FinTech’ companies and aims to create a level(...) - Read more

  • Payment Services Directive (PSD 1)
    is an EU Directive dealing with Payment Services. PSD1 (2007/64/EC) is designed to: help develop the Single Euro Payments Area (SEPA); set common standards for terms and conditions; regulate(...) - Read more

  • PDF
    Portable Document Format'  is a file format used to present documents in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems. Each PDF file encapsulates a complete(...) - Read more

  • PEPPOL
    stands for Pan-European Public Procurement On-line and is a set of specifications and capabilities for the secure exchange of procurement and invoicing messages between public bodies (and(...) - Read more

  • PEPPOL Transport Infrastructure Agreements
    are agreements between parties implementing the PEPPOL specifications for transporting messages between access point providers. The parties involved are PEPPOL Authorities, PEPPOL Access Point(...) - Read more

  • Physical Supply Chain
    is a term used to describe the totality of the organization, systems, people, activities, information, and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to a buyer. - Read more

  • PKI
    is a public key infrastructure (PKI), which is a set of roles, policies, and procedures needed to create, manage, distribute, use, store, and revoke digital certificates and manage public-key(...) - Read more

  • PO Flip
    is the conversion of a Purchase Order into an invoice by a supplier using tools provided by a service provider or an application. - Read more

  • Portal (or Web portal)
    is generally synonymous with ‘gateway’ and refers to a website that often serves as the single point of access for information, for example a website that users tend to visit as an anchor site(...) - Read more

  • Pre-payment invoice
    is an invoice used to request advance payments from customers in respect of a supply of goods and services. It specifies the amount to be prepaid on a sales order, which become deposits in(...) - Read more

  • Pro-forma invoice
    is a preliminary draft of an invoice sent to buyers in advance of a shipment or delivery of goods or services. Typically, it gives a description of the items concerned and notes the amounts to(...) - Read more

  • Public procurement
    is the acquisition of works, supplies and services by public bodies or contracting entities. It ranges from the purchase of routine supplies or services to formal tendering and placing contracts(...) - Read more

  • Purchase card or Purchasing card (also P-Card)
    is a form of charge card (usually a credit card) that allows goods and services to be procured by the employees of businesses and public bodies without using a traditional purchasing process.(...) - Read more

  • Purchase Order
    A buyer-generated document that authorizes a purchase transaction. When accepted by the seller, it becomes a firm order and a contract binding on both parties. A purchase order sets out the(...) - Read more

  • Purchase Order Finance
    a loan provided by a finance provider to a seller of goods and/or services for the sourcing, manufacturing or conversion of raw materials or semi-finished goods into finished goods and/or(...) - Read more

  • Purchase-to-Pay or Procure-to-Pay
    is the process and supporting systems that automate the purchase-to-payment chain of activities, connecting procurement and invoicing operations through an intertwined business flow that(...) - Read more

  • q

  • Qualified Electronic Signature
    is an electronic signature that is compliant to EU Regulation No 910/2014 (eIDAS Regulation) for electronic transactions within the internal European market. It enables parties to verify the(...) - Read more

  • r

  • Receivables Purchase
    is a form of receivables finance and includes techniques such as receivables discounting, forfaiting, factoring, and payables finance. In all cases the finance provider purchases the receivable(...) - Read more

  • Reference data model
    reference data is any kind of data that is used solely to categorize other data found in a database, or solely for relating data in a database to information beyond the boundaries of the(...) - Read more

  • Remittance advice
    is a notification sent by a customer to a supplier, to inform the supplier that their invoice has been paid. - Read more

  • Remittance Information
    is a reference issued by the seller used to establish a link between the payment of an invoice and the invoice instance. The reference helps the seller to assign an incoming payment to the(...) - Read more

  • Request-To-Pay (RTP)
    Request to Pay is a secure messaging framework. It is an overlay on top of existing payment infrastructure and a flexible way to manage and settle bills between businesses, organisations and(...) - Read more

  • Response Message
    see Invoice response and status message. - Read more

  • Reverse billing or invoicing
    is an invoicing process whereby by agreement the customer prepares the supplier’s invoice and forwards a copy to the supplier at the time of or shortly before payment. - Read more

  • Reverse Charge VAT
    under EU VAT rules in relation to cross-border trade between Member States, it moves the responsibility for the recording of a VAT transaction from the seller to the buyer of a good or service(...) - Read more

  • Reverse factoring
    is a synonym for Payables Finance. - Read more

  • Roaming
    is a common expression in the e-invoicing world for interoperability with other service providers on behalf of their customers, based on the mobile telephony analogy. In fact, the analogy is(...) - Read more

  • s

  • SaaS
    is a software licensing and delivery model in which software is licensed on a subscription basis and is centrally hosted. It is sometimes referred to as "on-demand software". SaaS is typically(...) - Read more

  • SBDH
    is the Standard Business Document Header (SBDH) which enables integration/transmission of documents between internal applications, enterprise applications, and business-to-business(...) - Read more

  • Scanning and OCR
    a process for scanning an invoice received in paper or PDF form and then through OCR (Optical Character Recognition) transferring the data into digital form. - Read more

  • SCF
    see Supply Chain Finance - Read more

  • Schematron
    is a rule-based validation language for making assertions about the presence or absence of patterns in XML trees. It will usually form the basis of a validation artefact. - Read more

  • Seller
    the contractually responsible seller of goods and services and issuer or sender of an invoice. - Read more

  • Semantic Data Model
    is a conceptual data model in which semantic information is included, and describes the meaning of its instances. For e-invoicing, Directive 2014/55/EU defines ‘semantic data model’ as a(...) - Read more

  • SEPA
    is the Single Euro Payments Area, in which retail payments in euro in the form of SEPA Credit Transfer, SEPA Direct Debit, and SEPA Card Payments are made available using common rules and standards. - Read more

  • Service Level Agreement
    is a contract between a service provider (either internal or external) and the end user that defines the level of service expected from the service provider. SLAs are output-based in that their(...) - Read more

  • Service Provider
    in the context of e-invoicing is an organization that provides its customers with services for the creation, delivery and processing of e-invoices and other related e-business transactions as(...) - Read more

  • SFTP
    is the SSH File Transfer Protocol (also Secure File Transfer Protocol) which is a network protocol that provides file access, file transfer, and file management over any reliable data stream. - Read more

  • Shared Services
    is the provision of a service by one part of an organization or group acting as a central servicing unit. It often applies to activities such as finance, administration, human resources and(...) - Read more

  • SME
    is a small and medium-sized enterprise. SMEs are defined in the EU recommendation 2003/361. The main factors determining whether an enterprise is an SME are staff headcount and either turnover(...) - Read more

  • SML/SMP
    Service Metadata Locator and Service Metadata Publisher are components of look-up and discovery services in OpenPEPPOL. - Read more

  • SMTP
    is Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, an Internet standard for electronic mail (email) transmission. - Read more

  • SSAE 16
    refers to Statement on Standards for Attestation Engagements (SSAE) 16 is an auditing standard for service organizations, superseding SAS 70. The latter's ‘service auditor’s examination’ is(...) - Read more

  • SSL
    is Secure Sockets Layer and is the standard security technology for establishing an encrypted link between a web server and a browser. This link ensures that all data passed between the web(...) - Read more

  • Straight-through-processing (STP)
    is an objective of transaction processing (originating in financial services) to eliminate or minimize human intervention or the re-keying of data. - Read more

  • Structured e-invoice
    is an e-invoice presented in a structured electronic format which allows for its automatic and electronic processing. - Read more

  • Supplier onboarding
    is the process of interfacing with the management of a supplier, gathering and providing the information needed to set up a company as an approved supplier, establishing connectivity, in order(...) - Read more

  • Supply chain automation
    is the use of automated and electronic processes as part of supply chain management to more efficiently manage transactions and events arising in physical and financial supply chains. - Read more

  • Supply Chain Finance
    is defined as the use of financing and risk mitigation practices and techniques to optimize the management of the working capital and liquidity invested in supply chain processes and(...) - Read more

  • Syntax
    is a technical means of representing information in electronic form. In Directive 2014/55/EU, it means the machine-readable language or dialect used to represent the data elements contained in(...) - Read more

  • t

  • Tax representative information
    is information which may appear in an invoice relating to an appointed tax representative acting on behalf of a trading party and which becomes engaged in the invoicing process for specific tax(...) - Read more

  • Third-Party-Providers (TPP)
    Provide services which are based on access to payment accounts provided by a PSP who is not the ‘account servicing’ PSP (ASPSP), in the form of payment initiation services and/or account(...) - Read more

  • Three Corner Model
    is an arrangement a where single service provider connects both the supplier and the buyer to its platform to offer e-invoicing and other supply chain services. - Read more

  • Three-way match
    is a system for processing a supplier’s invoice that ensures a transaction is complete and correct. Matching takes place between the purchase order, the delivery note or other evidence of(...) - Read more

  • Timestamping
    in computing timestamping refers to the use of an electronic timestamp to provide a temporal order among a set of events. Timestamping techniques are used in a variety of computing fields, from(...) - Read more

  • Total Invoice Management
    is a service model where a service provider agrees to handle and deliver or collect all the invoices generated or received by a customer, regardless of their form and whether paper or electronic. - Read more

  • Trading party
    is the buyer or seller in a commercial transaction. - Read more

  • Transmission
    in e-invoicing is delivery (including sending and receiving), presentation, or the ‘making available’ of invoices in a timely and secure manner between trading parties and any third parties(...) - Read more

  • Two Corner, Bilateral, or Direct Model
    is an arrangement where invoice transmission takes place on a direct connection basis between the trading parties. The trading parties may use a third party service or solution provider or SaaS(...) - Read more

  • u

  • UBL
    is Universal Business Language - an open library of standard electronic XML business documents for procurement and transportation such as purchase orders, invoices, transport logistics and(...) - Read more

  • UBL Syntax
    is the syntax developed by OASIS to be the technical language for UBL and is one of the syntaxes selected for use in the EN-16931 to represent the semantic model. - Read more

  • UN/CEFACT and UN/CEFACT Syntax
    UN/CEFACT is the United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business. One of the key standards it has developed is the Cross Industry Invoice (CII). The underlying syntax for(...) - Read more

  • UN/EDIFACT
    United Nations/Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport (UN/EDIFACT) is the international EDI standard developed under the United Nations. In 1987, following the(...) - Read more

  • Unstructured e-invoice
    is an e-invoice presented in a format other than a structured format, such as a humanly generated PDF that is not capable of automated and electronic processing. Such a presentation may also be(...) - Read more

  • v

  • Validation Artefact
    is a tool which allows its users to easily validate whether invoices comply with a standards specification. - Read more

  • Validation or Verification
    is a process carried out by an e-invoice receiver or a service provider on its behalf to ensure that an e-invoice, inter alia, is compliant with its business and technical requirements and with(...) - Read more

  • VAN
    is a Value-added Network offering services to customers. - Read more

  • VAT
    is a value added tax on goods and services within the European Union (EU). The EU's institutions do not collect the tax, but EU Member States are each required to adopt a value added tax that(...) - Read more

  • VeR
    is the e-Invoicing Alliance of Germany- Verband e-Rechnung - Read more

  • Virtual Card Payments
    Virtual credit cards are online cards that are not physically issued by the credit card provider. It is usually a free service provided by the original card issuer to their customers who want to(...) - Read more

  • Visualization
    is the provision or rendering of a humanly readable version of an e-invoice as a companion to a structured e-invoice. It may be rendered by any involved party at any stage in the process. It is(...) - Read more

  • w

  • Web Form
    is a form on a web page that allows a user to enter data that is sent to a server for processing. Forms can resemble paper or database forms because web users fill out the forms using standard(...) - Read more

  • With or Without Recourse
    In the case of ‘with recourse’, the finance provider relies on the seller (of a receivable or claim) for any shortfall in the event of non-payment. In a ‘without recourse’ facility or agreement(...) - Read more

  • Workflow
    consists of an orchestrated and repeatable pattern of business activity enabled by the systematic organization of resources into processes that transform materials, provide services, or process(...) - Read more

  • x

  • XHE
    Exchange Header Envelope developed jointly by OASIS and UN/CEFACT - Read more

  • XML
    Extensible Mark-up Language is a mark-up language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is human-readable and machine-readable. Several schema systems exist to aid(...) - Read more

  • z

  • ZUGFeRD
    is a specification for a data format for an electronic invoice developed by the German National e-invoicing Forum. It is notable for providing a human readable visual representation and a(...) - Read more

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